They’re also important. If a sentence contains nonessential words, phrases, or clauses, use commas to set them apart. A writer may choose to place a comma before and(or any conjunction) when the conjunction launches such a phrase: 1. Grammarly catches misplaced commas and other writing issues. Commas are also used to separate independent clauses (phrases that can stand on their own) when a conjunction (like and) is used, as in the compound sentence: Mark went to the store, and … Want to learn about other ways to use a comma? Despite popular belief, the rules for using commas in a sentence don’t depend on what comes before or after a specific word.. Another common misconception is that you need a comma any time you would pause when speaking. For example: For example: I am going … Sam, and Sarah take excellent care of their pets. 2. Just be consistent. Whether it comes before and or elsewhere in a sentence, following basic comma rules can make using this misunderstood punctuation mark a breeze. If you add an and after the comma, the sentence becomes grammatically correct. In that case, you would not place a comma before … Direct quotations, such as dialogue, should be preceded by commas. Commas can be used to set apart phrases that interrupt the flow of a sentence. The proper … Sign in to access your personalized homepage, follow authors and topics you love, and clap for stories that matter to you. When directly addressing a person, use a comma to set off their name, nickname, title, or term of endearment. The Chicago Manual of Style, section 6.21, says that although you use serial commas in Chicago style, you don’t use a serial comma in a company name if the “and” is written as an ampersand instead of as the word “and.” The serial comma is the comma before the final “and” in a series. Note that some style guides would not add the comma after the word “eggs”. Use a comma after the first independent clause when you link two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. A comma is used to add clarity. They may be removed from a sentence without altering its meaning. In a nutshell, we use commas to: Whew! Applications are due by 31 December 2016. Use a comma before and after, however, moreover, furthermore, and therefore. The Chicago Manual of Style, section 6.21, says that although you use serial commas in Chicago style, you don’t use a serial comma in a company name if the “and” is written as an ampersand instead of as the word “and.” The serial comma is the comma before the final “and” in a series. The proper place for the comma is before the conjunction. Today, … You usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. The Serial Comma Helps to Prevent a Misreading Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. Commas Before and in a Series. Comma Before And That Joins Two Independent Clauses The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. Thankfully, learning when to use a comma before and after which is actually pretty easy when you follow several … 2. The answer is C. The Oxford comma comes immediately before an "and" in a list. Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. The use of a comma with independent clauses is more straightforward. Comma Before 'And' & 'So' Although commas are used in many different ways, in this video we're only going to address the use of commas with the conjunctions 'and' and 'so.' In general terms, a comma falls under the category of a punctuation mark. The comma here improves legibility and is a better representation of spoken language (there is usually a pause before “whereas”). Commas can be confusing. Removal of such a clause from the sentence would alter the … Therefore, we need a comma before and. We could ar… Using a comma before “who” for additional information If “who” is not acting as a restrictive clause, the most likely use of it in a sentence is to provide additional information. Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause. EXAMPLES: Sam tossed the ball and watched the dog chase it. Second, using the serial comma - a comma before "and" or "or" in a series of three or more items (a, b, and c) - is a matter of style. This is when you are using the comma as an Oxford comma (sometimes known as … (There are a few exceptions that require you to use the Oxford comma in a list, but they are pretty rare.) A simple test is to put a period after each clause and see if it makes sense as a standalone sentence. After “mortgage loans,” does our list name one additional topic, “the use of debit and credit cards and the use of mutual funds and CDs”? But the second clause, watched the dog chase it, can’t stand by itself as a complete sentence. Consider this sentence, for example: That comma is optional. Do not use a comma. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. A sentence can contain two independent clauses if they’re linked by a conjunction such as and, or, and but. Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. If the independent clauses contain commas, it is possible to use a semicolon instead of a comma before the conjunction. Do you know the comma before “and” is known by the following names: Oxford Comma Harvard Comma Serial Comma Series Comma Here I’m gonna share the best practice to learn the Oxford comma that I … Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. In other words, there is virtually never a comma before “that”, unless there is some other reason to use a comma, such as another non-essential subordinate clause ending there. Let’s face it. It’s often used to indicate a pause in a sentence or to separate items in a list. If that’s not the case, you can omit it. That means it’s a dependent clause, so we should not use a comma before and. Insert a comma before the coordinating conjunction. Joining two independent clauses. The word “thereby” could be used … Don’t use a comma before and when one of the clauses it’s connecting is a dependent clause. It’s cold outside, and I can’t find my coat. Well, appropriately enough, the Oxford Dictionary has the answer. Here’s an example: It’s not wrong to add a comma before and in the sentence above, but doing so might make the sentence a little choppy. There are three primary uses of conjunctions: When a coordinating conjunction is used to connect two independent clauses, a comma is always used. Commas may also be used to express interruptions to direct quotations. It must have both a subject and a verb. If the independent clauses contain commas, it is possible to use a semicolon instead of a comma before the conjunction. If you are using “therefore” in the middle of a sentence to separate 2 independent clauses, then you will need to use a semicolon. Whether it is correct to use a comma before a coordinating conjunction ("and", "but", "or", "nor", "for", "yet", "so") depends on the situation. The answer is D. Commas should be used when joining two independent clauses, compiling a list, or introducing direct quotations. From Linguistics and History to puns and memes, she's interested in the systems we create to share our ideas with each other. If you’ve ever heard someone arguing about serial commas or Oxford commas, this is what they were talking about. Rule #1: Use Commas to Separate Items in a List. There was a time when this sentence would be punctuated exactly this way. Flawless spelling & grammar are just the beginning. If the Chicago Manual of Style is more your thing, you should always include it for clarity. When a comma is used immediately before an and in a list, it’s called an Oxford comma. The sentence above contains two independent clauses (highlighted in green), so it requires a comma before and. Exactly why this particular quirk of comma usage stirs such passions is hard to say; it’s just one of those things. We help brands stay relevant and gain visibility in search results. It is grammatically correct to use a comma before "and" (and other coordinating conjunctions such as "but", "or", "nor") only when it splits two independent clauses (i.e. Certain grammatical situations require the use of a comma before and. This is because the sentence is talking about a particular person John. There is also a prescriptive … In fact, the Oxford comma is a hotly debated point in modern grammar, and ultimately, it comes down to a stylistic choice. The dog is well trained and good natured. Let Krista Grace Morris know how much you appreciate this article by clicking the heart icon and by sharing this article on social media. Many writers (even good ones) forget to put a comma before the word as when one is needed (or they use a comma when they shouldn’t). Consider this sentence, for example:Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. Should you put a comma before and is a question that requires a straightforward answer. Sam and Sarah take excellent care of their pets. In the example above, the serial comma is the one that separates birds from the and. The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. When it comes to grammatical conundrums, commas are often the culprit. In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series. Therefore, it’s important to use a comma when connecting two independent clauses, as you want to … However, this is quite an outdated practice, but you can use it if you think it makes … You can, however, proceed with the corrections. There’s no single rule that applies to all situations. Some people (mostly, but not exclusively, Brits) consider the Oxford Comma to be a waste of ink, while others … Writers tend to make this mistake when forming sentences in … More specifically, some lists contain a comma that’s known as the Oxford comma. Or if you’re using it in lists that require an Oxford comma. Sarah told him again, and really meant it this time, to turn off the television. Sometimes we may see a comma before and(or another coordinating conjunction) that is appropriate for a reason unrelated to that conjunction. If you follow the AP style, you would probably delete the comma it out of economy. The dog is well trained, and good natured. Take a breath. By the way, this rule only applies to lists of three or more items. Although it’s not technically incorrect to include it, you risk having a choppy sentence. You should only use the comma in series of three or more. Alice asked John once, but only once, to forgive her. Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. (Isn’t there always?) There are some rare exceptions though, where the ‘Oxford … More importantly, you can make it clear that you enjoy cooking, your friends, and cats. In other words, it can stand alone as a sentence. When a word or phrase forms an introduction … This brief guide will shed light on the age-old question of whether to use a comma before the word and. The comma (,) is very frequently used and very frequently used wrongly.In fact, the rules for using commas are really rather simple, though complicated by the fact that the comma has four … The truth is that the purpose of a comma is to provide clarity to a sentence by removing any possible ambiguity or confusion. The Comma. 2. If you are referencing a day of the week and a date, use a … : it ’ s typically needed when the adjectives ’ order is interchangeable contains three or more things sam Sarah! 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