He attacked the literary, philosophical, and ecclesiastical establishments of his day for misrepresenting the highest task of human existence—namely, becoming oneself in an ethical and religious sense—as something so easy that it could seem already accomplished even when it had not even been undertaken. Kierkegaard influenced 19th-century literature writers as well as 20th-century literature. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Soren-Kierkegaard, Age of the Sage - Transmitting the Wisdoms of the Ages - Biography of Soren Kierkegaard, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Soren Kierkegaard, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Søren Kierkegaard, Søren Kierkegaard - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). This is perhaps due to the facts that Kierkegaard was shunned by the Danish State Church, one of the major institutions in Denmark at the time, as well as the relative obscurity of the Danish language, compared to languages such as German and English. Search all of SparkNotes Search. [a] Sipe argues that it "would be of more benefit to feminism not to read Kierkegaard in search of his own personal stance on the woman question, but rather to read him in an exploratory manner as one who has exposed new avenues of thought, new ways of examining the woman question". But it was not to be. Important information about 's background, historical events that influenced Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855), and the main ideas within the work. The collection includes approximately 20,000 book volumes, some of which are a collection of editions matching those owned by Kierkegaard himself. All references to Kierkegaard’s journals first give numbers in Søren Kierkegaard’s Journals and Papers followed by numbers in Søren Kierkegaards Papirer. Søren Kierkegaard's influence and reception varied widely and may be roughly divided into various chronological periods. Author of. In his journals, he wrote: "What the age needs is not a genius—it has had geniuses enough, but a martyr, who in order to teach men to obey would himself be obedient unto death. The other great Norwegian national writer and poet Bjornstjerne Bjornson (1832-1910) was also deeply inspired by Kierkegaard. Salinger and John Updike. The themes of sacrificial father/son relationships, of inherited sin, of the burden o… Traité éthique-religieux). On the one hand, he often seemed to be moving away from the faith of his father and back toward it at virtually the same time. Kierkegaard's sociological work Two Ages: The Age of Revolution and the Present Age critiques modernity. "[17], Kierkegaard's relationship to feminism is a troublesome one, Kierkegaard has been described as misogynistic, making "snide comments about woman’s nature, mocking with utmost irony her “great abilities” and sneering at the possibility of her emancipation" although Dera Sipe of Villanova University states that viewing Kierkegaard as a "straight misogynist is highly problematic". 1, 2013, pp. [6], Kierkegaard had a profound influence on psychology. The startling prayer life of Søren Kierkegaard Karen Wright Marsh February 28, 2020 Unfinished sketch of Søren Kierkegaard, by his cousin Niels Christian Kierkegaard, c. … Unamuno refers to Kierkegaard in his book, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFOstenfeldMcKinnon1972 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFKierkegaard2001 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMatustikWestphal1995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFUpdike1997 (, Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments. Like the German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831), whose system he would severely criticize, Kierkegaard entered university in order to study theology but devoted himself to literature and philosophy instead. Type: BOOK - Published: 1965 - Publisher: Get Books. Søren Kierkegaard : biography 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855 Influence Many 20th-century philosophers, both theistic and atheistic, and theologians drew concepts from Kierkegaard, including the notions of angst, despair, and the importance of the individual. Language: en Pages: 228. In Kierkegaard's native Denmark, the Danish people hosted his 200th anniversary of Kierkegaard's birth in Copenhagen in May 2013.[15]. The influence of Kierkegaards father on his work has been frequently noted. Saying in his will that he considered engagement as binding as marriage, he left all his possessions to Regine (she did not accept them, however, since she had married long before Kierkegaard died). Søren Kierkegaard's philosophy has been a major influence in the development of 20th century philosophy, especially in the movements of Existentialism and Postmodernism. Soren Kierkegaard biography Soren Kierkegaard was born on the 15 th of May 1813 in the Danish capital Copenhagen and into a wealthy and prominent merchant family that already included six children. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. [20], The most significant translation work was conducted by Christoph Schrempf, another student of J.T. He bewilders me without working the good effects which he would in deeper souls". Beck. Many of Kierkegaard's earlier works from 1843–1846 were written pseudonymously. [19], Subsequent translations of Kierkegaard into French include those produced by Paul Petit, who produced a French translation of the Concluding Unscientific Postscript in 1941, as well as a translation of the Philosophical Fragments, published posthumously in 1947. The first period of literary activity (1843–46) was followed by a second (1847–55). This was Michael Kierkegaard's second marriage, which came within a year of his first wife’s death and four months into Ane Lund’s first pregnancy. Søren Aabye Kierkegaard was an insightful and prolific mark that changed the Danish ‘golden age’ of enlightenment and his legacy still rings true throughout Western society. Enjoy these insightful quotes from his works: Don't forget to love yourself. Philosophers from Adorno to Wittgenstein expressed great respect for his work and existential thinkers like Jaspers and Heidegger drew widely on his analysis of despair and freedom.. Not only did Kierkegaard inherit his fathers melancholy, his sense of guilt and anxiety, and his pietistic emphasis on the dour aspects of Christian faith, but he also inherited his talents for philosophical argument and creative imagination. His father was a firmly committed to a strict approach to faith and life and sought to ensure that his family would grow up within a firmly Lutheran household. [9], Kierkegaard influenced 19th-century literature writers as well as 20th-century literature. 62, 2014, pp. Kierkegaard’s life has been called uneventful, but it was hardly that. August Strindberg (1843-1912) found inspiration in Kierkegaard and the famous Norwegian dramatist and poet Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) clearly seems to have been inspired by the Dane in famous works such as Brand. His father was a firmly committed to a strict approach to faith and life and sought to ensure that his family would grow up within a firmly Lutheran household. Distinguished Professor of Philosophy Emeritus, Fordham University. Authors: Edward John Carnell. Søren Kierkegaard, in full Søren Aabye Kierkegaard, (born May 5, 1813, Copenhagen, Den.—died Nov. 11, 1855, Copenhagen), Danish philosopher, theologian, and cultural critic who was a major influence on existentialism and Protestant theology in the 20th century. As we look at Kierkegaard’s life and his works, we find that there were really four major influences that were extremely important to him. Kierkegaard was influenced early in life by the devoutly religious teachings of his father which concentrated on Christ's suffering. Søren Kierkegaard was a 19th century Danish philosopher who has been called the "Father of Existentialism". Søren Kierkegaard dies. There was an anonymous German review of Philosophical Fragments published in 1845 which subsequent scholarship believes was written by Beck. The first collision occurred during his student days: he became estranged both from his father and from the faith in which he had been brought up, and he moved out of the family home. 68, no. 20-21. Born on the 5th of May, 1813 in Copenhagen, he was the youngest child of seven to Michael and Ane Kierkegaard. Søren Kierkegaard, in full Søren Aabye Kierkegaard, (born May 5, 1813, Copenhagen, Den.—died Nov. 11, 1855, Copenhagen), Danish philosopher, theologian, and cultural critic who was a major influence on existentialism and Protestant theology in the 20th century. Schrempf's first translations appeared in 1890 and by 1922, he had completed translations of the entire set of Kierkegaard's published writings. But at Mynster’s funeral Martensen, who had succeeded to the leadership of the Danish church, eulogized his predecessor as a “witness to the truth,” linking him to the martyrs of the faith; after this Kierkegaard could no longer keep silent. Hegel emphasized universals; Kierkegaard argued for decision and commitment. Eric Hamm, Søren Kierkegaard Newsletter, no. [20], In 1856, the Bavarian-born conservative politician and historian Joseph Edmund Jörg wrote an article discussing religious movements and events in Scandinavian history. And today I’d like to talk about the major Søren Kierkegaard is a multifaceted author who has continued to interest, provoke and intrigue thinkers from a vast range of disciplines. In 1830 Kierkegaard went to study theology, philosophy and literature at the University of Copenhagen. Søren Kierkegaard’s influence on the thinking of Karol Nandrásky 27 3. Governed by contingency, yet in spirit soaring above the world, the human being finds himself torn asunder. Michael Kierkegaard was a deeply mel… The influence of Søren Kierkegaard Nandrásky expressed his personal relationship to Kierkegaard in his short essay O dojmoch z Dánska vo forme listu S. Kierkegaardovi. Kierkegaard is also seen as an important precursor of postmodernism. Accordingly, he decided to publish Sygdommen til døden (1849; Sickness unto Death) under a pseudonym (as he had done with several previous works), lest anyone think he lived up to the ideal he there presented; likewise, the pseudonymous authors of his other works often denied that they possessed the faith they talked about. He emphasized that Kierkegaard was for him “the best friend in Denmark”, whose “spirit reached to Søren Kierkegaard passed away on the 11 November 1855. Kierkegaard’s Christian philosophy may have been rejected by clergy, but he certainly influenced individual Christians who became enamored with his theology. His fame as a philosopher grew tremendously in the 1930s, in large part because the ascendant existentialist movement pointed to him as a precursor, although later writers celebrated him as a highly significant and influential thinker in his own right. The pseudonyms are best understood by analogy with characters in a novel, created by the actual author to embody distinctive worldviews; it is left to the reader to decide what to make of each one. Existentialist philosophy’s core concern is the nature of … Kierkegaard’s Christian philosophy may have been rejected by clergy, but he certainly influenced individual Christians who became enamored with his theology. 87-90. What is clear is that this relationship haunted him for the rest of his life. Søren A. Kierkegaard ‐ 1 ‐ Søren Kierkegaard (1813‐1855) Søren Kierkegaardʹs extensive catalogue of published and unpublished works had, both in Denmark and abroad, a profound influence on the theology, philosophy, and literature of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Much of his philosophical work deals with the issues of how one lives as a "single individual", giving priority to concrete human reality over abstract thinkingand highlighting the imp… The other great Norwegian national writer and poet Bjornstjerne Bjornson (1832-1910) was also deeply inspired by Kierkegaard. Born on the 5th of May, 1813 in Copenhagen, he was the youngest child of seven to Michael and Ane Kierkegaard. 2 Kierkegaard's trips to Berlin took place in 1841, 1843, 1845, and 1846. Søren Kierkegaard dies. "Kierkegaard and Feminism: A Paradoxical Friendship", On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates, De omnibus dubitandum est: Everything Must Be Doubted, The Crisis and a Crisis in the Life of an Actress, The Lily of the Field and the Bird of the Air, Three Discourses at the Communion on Fridays, Two Discourses at the Communion on Fridays, The Point of View of My Work as an Author, Thomasine Christine Gyllembourg-Ehrensvärd, Influence and reception of Søren Kierkegaard, Howard V. and Edna H. Hong Kierkegaard Library, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Influence_and_reception_of_Søren_Kierkegaard&oldid=964735249, Articles to be expanded from December 2015, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 June 2020, at 08:10. Heidegger was to acknowledge Kierkegaard’s masterly exploration of the human condition as one of ‘Angst’. history, philosophy Let us take a brief departure from politics to some theological history, shall we? Søren Aabye Kierkegaard was an insightful and prolific mark that changed the Danish ‘golden age’ of enlightenment and his legacy still rings true throughout Western society. Philosophers and theologians influenced by Kierkegaard include Hans Urs von Balthasar, Karl Barth, Simone de Beauvoir, Niels Bohr, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Emil Brunner, Martin Buber, Rudolf Bultmann, Albert Camus, Martin Heidegger, Abraham Joshua Heschel, Karl Jaspers, Gabriel Marcel, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Reinhold Niebuhr, Franz Rosenzweig, Jean-Paul Sartre, Joseph Soloveitchik, Paul Tillich, Malcolm Muggeridge, Thomas Merton, Miguel de Unamuno. "[16] To some degree, Kierkegaard can be seen as one of the few philosophers to whom the simple analytic/continental divide does not fully apply. "The book as a whole contains much information on the genesis of Existentialism and on Kierkegaard's role in it." His thinking during this period is revealed in an 1835 journal entry, which is often cited as containing the germ of his later work: The thing is to find a truth which is true for me, to find the idea for which I can live and die.…What is truth but to live for an idea? Ludwig Wittgenstein was immensely influenced and humbled by Kierkegaard,[5] claiming that "Kierkegaard is far too deep for me, anyhow. Soren Kierkegaard biography Soren Kierkegaard was born on the 15 th of May 1813 in the Danish capital Copenhagen and into a wealthy and prominent merchant family that already included six children. Notes on Wittgenstein's Reading of Kierkegaard by Jens Glebe-Moeller. The article also detailed the controversy around his funeral. Søren Kierkegaard, the nineteenth-century Danish philosopher rediscovered in the twentieth century, is a major influence in contemporary philosophy, religion, and literature. Kierkegaard's present stature in the English-speaking world owes much to the exegetical writings and improved Kierkegaard translations by the American theologian Walter Lowrie, the University of Minnesota philosopher David F. Swenson, and the Danish translators Howard and Edna Hong. 20-21. Most notably are American theologians Paul Tillich and Lincoln Swain, and philosophers from Europe -- Karl Jaspers, Gabriel Marcel, Miguel de Unamuno -- and from Russia Nikolai Berdyaev. "The book as a whole contains much information on the genesis of Existentialism and on Kierkegaard's role in it." Kierkegaard was a saint. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The work translated was Two Minor Ethical-Religious Essays (French: En quoi l'homme de génie diffère-t-il de l'apôtre? Biography of Soren Kierkegaard, All Poems of Soren Kierkegaard his/her biography, comments and quotations. Many 20th-century philosophers, both theistic and atheistic, drew concepts from Kierkegaard, including the notions of angst, despair, and the importance of the individual. Suggestions Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Better at giving than at taking, he was deeply wounded, and indeed he never fully recovered. [1] Henriette Wulff, in a letter to Hans Christian Andersen, wrote, "Recently a book was published here with the title Either/Or! Kierkegaard has also influenced members of the analytical philosophy tradition, most notably Ludwig Wittgenstein, who considered Kierkegaard to be "the most profound thinker of the [nineteenth] century. [18], Kierkegaard was first mentioned in a French publication in 1856 in Revue des deux mondes (English: Review of the Two Worlds) in an article detailing the state of Danish politics and culture which described his influence on the Danish church as having "bewildered many minds and troubled many weak or fearful consciences". Search all of SparkNotes Search. While a student at the university, Kierkegaard explored the literary figures of Don Juan, the wandering Jew, and especially Faust, looking for existential models for his own life. Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834) and Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) had an enormous impact upon the history of theology and western philosophy (besides having some really cool names). The Society was organized more formally under the leadership of Sylvia Walsh in 1990 and upholds its mission to… [18] Sipe, after examining his essay on the suffragette movement and the seducer's diary and their misogynistic content, then pivots towards Kierkegaard's view on the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus and Sarah, the young daughter of Raguel and Edna both of whom Kierkegaard considers to be knights of faith. We went through the major events in his life. It is supposed to be quite strange, the first part full of Don Juanism, skepticism, et cetera, and the second part toned down and conciliating, ending with a sermon that is said to be quite excellent. Hamlet … He saw becoming a Christian as the task of a lifetime. His translations have been criticised repeatedly as unreliable: Heiko Schulz referred to them as "repeatedly revised, highly idiosyncratic, and at times breathtakingly free renditions of the Kierkegaardian texts". August Strindberg (1843-1912) found inspiration in Kierkegaard and the famous Norwegian dramatist and poet Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) clearly seems to have been inspired by the Dane in famous works such as Brand. 1, 2013, pp. Kierkegaard and Sartre Soren Kierkegaard was the first philosopher to actually consider that he wrote about Existentialism. Positively, the heart of his work lay in the infinite requirement and strenuous difficulty of religious existence in general and Christian faith in particular. Schrempf also spread a view of Kierkegaard significantly out-of-step from the mainstream, interpreting Kierkegaard's "subjectivity as truth" as a justification for his own religious disbelief.[20]. Georg Brandes, an early Kierkegaardian Danish scholar who was fluent in Danish and German, gave one of the first formal lectures on Kierkegaard and helped bring Kierkegaard t… Søren Kierkegaard’s influence on the thinking of Karol Nandrásky 27 3. However, Kierkegaard's attack upon Christendom, represented by the Danish National Church near the end of his life, did not endear him to many in the clergy and theological circles. 1859. On the other hand, he often stressed that conversion is a long process. Søren Kierkegaard “The function of prayer is not to influence God, but rather to change the nature of the one who prays.” ... For any feedback on the site or any questions on Kierkegaard’s writings or translations you might have, you’re welcome to use the contact form. If the broken engagement was the cloud that hung over the first literary period, the Corsair debacle was the ghost that haunted the second. [8] Ernest Becker based his 1974 Pulitzer Prize book, The Denial of Death, on the writings of Kierkegaard, Freud and Otto Rank. Omissions? Kierkegaard's influence on continental philosophy increased dramatically after the First and Second World Wars, especially among the German existenz thinkers and French existentialists. 1859. The whole book attracted much attention. His father’s stern piety, deep melancholy, and profound sense of guilt greatly influenced Søren’s life and writings. In addition Kierkegaard inherited enough of his fathers wealth to allow him to pursue his life as a freelance writer. The Catholic Jörg praised Kierkegaard's relentless attack on the Danish Lutheran Church, but suggests that Kierkegaard should perhaps have seen Catholicism as a final step in his religious development. [18], In her paper Kierkegaard and Feminism: A Paradoxical Friendship, Sipe commends Kierkegaard for taking "a hammer to the cold foundations of traditional Western philosophy" and introducing existentialism which feminism has adopted and thrived in. Important information about 's background, historical events that influenced Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855), and the main ideas within the work. Søren Kierkegaard, in full Søren Aabye Kierkegaard, (born May 5, 1813, Copenhagen, Den.—died Nov. 11, 1855, Copenhagen), Danish philosopher, theologian, and cultural critic who was a major influence on existentialism and Protestant theology in the 20th century. It is also clear that this crisis triggered a period of astonishing literary productivity, during which Kierkegaard published many of the works for which he is best known: Enten-Eller: et livs-fragment (1843; Either/Or: A Fragment of Life), Gjentagelsen (1843; Repetition), Frygt og baeven (1843; Fear and Trembling), Philosophiske smuler (1844; Philosophical Fragments), Begrebet angest (1844; The Concept of Anxiety), Stadier paa livets vei (1845; Stages on Life’s Way), and Afsluttende uvidenskabelig efterskrift (1846; Concluding Unscientific Postscript). I never forget how God helps me and it is therefore my last wish that everything may be to his honour. The Corsair took the bait, and for months Kierkegaard was the target of raucous ridicule, the greatest butt of jokes in Copenhagen. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. HE WAS THE FATHER OF EXISTENTIALISM. Since his time existential approaches to philosophy about life have grown very greatly in influence and also appeared in several forms influenced by numerous writers and thinkers. After his death, his original manuscripts were bequeathed by his one-time fiancée, Regine Olsen for posterity. Hegel emphasized universals; Kierkegaard argued for decision and commitment. As Walter Lowrie in his A Short Life of Kierkegaardtells us, “Kierkegaard seems to have gotten his wit and his outgoing traits from his mother, and yet he doesn’t really say an awful lot about her. In philosophy Kierkegaard’s work played a seminal role in that broad movement of thought known as ‘existentialism’. Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (/ ˈ s ɔr ən ˈ k ɪər k ə ɡ ɑr d / or / ˈ k ɪər k ə ɡ ɔr /; Danish: [ˈsɶːɐn ˈkiɐ̯ɡəɡɒːˀ]) (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic, and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. [14] In America, interest in Kierkegaard was revived from the 1980s onwards, particularly by the American philosopher and curator of the Kierkegaard Library at St. Olaf College Gordon Marino, who has devoted several books and essays to Kierkegaard. As it influenced the West everlastingly has adopted a pseudonym.... '' [ ]! She was only 15 years old, and English Bjornstjerne Bjornson ( 1832-1910 ) was followed by Kierkegaard... Article also detailed the controversy around his funeral Sartre, Emmanuel Levinas, and months... 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'' the Blackwell Encyclopedia of modern Christian thought '' 's the Concept of Anxiety on Kierkegaard 's earlier works 1843–1846... And published translations of a number of Kierkegaard 's influence and reception varied widely and may be to his.. Child of seven to Michael and Ane Kierkegaard clear is that this relationship him! The Tübingen-trained pastor, Albert Bärthold, studied Kierkegaard under Johann Tobias Beck published! Various ideologies attempted to appropriate his work Either/Or Church of Denmark ( Lutheran ) and its,. Described in the paper as `` players in a drama '' with Kierkegaard as the.. 'S the Concept of Anxiety on Kierkegaard 's idea of subjectivity as truth 18 ] then. Acknowledging that he wrote about Existentialism his death, Kierkegaard postulates that truth is Soren! Be to his honour the world, the bishops J.P. Mynster and H.L seen as an important of. Nandrásky 27 3 giving than at taking, he often stressed that conversion is a multifaceted who. 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